Pathology and Genetics Free Notes Download – B.Sc. Nursing

Section A- Pathology

Unit I

Introduction

Importance of the study of pathology
Definition of terms
Methods and techniques
Cellular and Tissue changes
Infiltration and regeneration
Inflammations and Infections
Wound healing
Vascular changes

Cellular growth, Neoplasm

Normal and cancer cell
Benign and Malignant growths
In situ carcinoma

Disturbance of fluid and electrolyte imbalance

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Unit II

Special pathology

Pathological changes in disease conditions of various system:
Respiratory tract

Tuberculosis, Bronchitis, Pleural effusion and pneumonia, Lung abscess,
emphysema, bronchiectasis
Bronchial asthama, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease & tumours

Cardio-vascular system

Pericardial effusion
Rheumatic heart disease
Infective endocarditis, atherosclerosis
Ischemia, infection & aneurysm

Gastro Intestinal tract

Peptic ulcer, typhoid
Carcinoma of GI tract buccal, Esophageal,
Gastric & intestinal

Liver, Gall bladder & pancreas

Hepatitis, Chronic liver abscess, cirrhosis
Tumours of liver, gall bladder and pancreas
Cholecystitis

Kidneys & urinary tract

Glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis
Calculi, renal failure, renal carcinoma & cystitis

Male genital systems

Cryptorchidism, testicular atrophy
Prostatic hyperplasia, carcinoma Penis & prostate

Female genital system

Fibroids
Carcinoma cervix and Endometrium
Vesicular mole, choriocarcinoma
Ectopic gestation
Ovarian cyst & tumour

Caner Breast
Central Nervous system

Hydrocephalus, meningitis, encephalitis,
Vascular disorders – thrombosis, embolism
Stroke, paraplegia, quadriplegia Tumours, meningiomas, gliomas

Metastatic toumour
Skeletal system

Bone healing, osteoporosis, ostemyelitis Arthritis & tumours

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Unit III

Clinical Pathology

Various blood and bone marrow tests in assessment and monitoring of disease
conditions

Hemoglobin
RBC, White cell & platelet counts
Bleeding time, clotting time and prothrombine time
Blood grouping and cross matching
Blood chemistry
Blood culture
Serological and immunoligical tests
Other blood tests
Examination of Bone marrow
Methods of collection of blood specimen for various clinical pathology,
biochemistry, microbiology tests, inference and normal value

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Unit IV

Examination of body cavity fluids, transudates and exudates

The laboratories tests used in CSF analysis
Examination of other body cavity fluids, transudates and exudates – sputum, wound
discharge etc.
Analysis of semen-sperm count, motility and morphology and their importance in
infertility
Methods of collection of CSF and other cavity fluids specimen for various clinical
pathology, biochemistry, microbiology tests, inference and normal values

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Unit V

Urine and faeces

Urine

Physical characteristics
Analysis
Culture and sensitivity

Faeces

Characteristics
Stool examination: occult blood, ova, parasite and cyst, reducing
substance etc.

Methods of collection for various tests, inference and normal values

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Section B- Genetics

Unit I

Introduction

Practical application of genetics in Nursing
Impact of genetic conditions on families
Review of cellular division mitosis and meiosis
Characteristics and structure of genes
Chromosomes – Sex determination

Chromosomal aberrations patterns of inheritance
Multiple allots and blood groups
Sex linked inheritance
Mechanism of inheritance
Errors in transmission (Mutation)

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Unit II

Maternal, prenatal and genetic influences on development of defects and disease

Condition affecting the mother: genetic and infections
Consanguinity atopy
Prenatal nutrition and food allergies.
Maternal age
Maternal drug therapy
Prenatal testing and disgnosis
Effect of Radiation, drugs and chemicals
Spontaneous abortion
Neural tube defects and the role of folic acid in lowering the risks
Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)

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Unit III

Genetic testing in the neonates and children

Screening for

Congenital abnormalities
Developmental delay
Dimorphism

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Unit IV

Genetic conditions of adolescents and adults

Cancer genetics – Familial cancer
Inborn errors of metabolism hematological disorder
Genetic haemochromatosis
Huntington’s disease
Metal illness

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Unit V

Services related to Genetics

Genetic testing
Human genome project
Gene therapy
The Eugenics movement
Genetic counseling

Legal and Ethical issues
Role of nurse

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