Nursing Foundations Free Notes Download – B.Sc. Nursing

Unit I

Introduction

Concept of Health: Health-Illness continuum
Factors influencing health
Causes and risk factors for developing illness
Body defenses: Immunity and immunization
Illness and illness Behaviour :
Impact of illness on patient and family
Health Care Services: Health Promotion and Prevention, Primary Care, Diagnosis,
Treatment, Rehabilitation and Continuing Care
Health Care teams
Types of health care agencies:
Hospitals: Types, Organisation and Functions
Health Promotion and levels of Disease Prevention
Primary Health care and its delivery: role of nurse

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Unit II

Nursing as a Profession

Definition and Characteristics of a profession
Nursing:
Definition, Concepts, Philosophy, Objectives
Characteristics, nature and scope of nursing practice
Functions of nurse
Qualities of a nurse
Categories of nursing personnel
Nursing as a profession
History of Nursing in India
Values: Definition, Types
Values Clarification and values in professional Nursing: Caring and Advocacy
Ethics:
Definition and Ethical principles
Code of ethics and professional conduct for nurses

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Unit III

Hospital admission and discharge

Admission to the hospital
Unit and its preparation admission bed
Admission procedure
Special considerations
Medico-legal issues
Roles and Responsibilities of the nurse
Discharge from the hospital
Types: Planned discharge LAMA and abscond, Referrals and transfer
Discharge Planning
Discharge procedure
Special considerations
Medico-legal issues
Role and Responsibilities of the nurse
Care of the unit after discharge

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Unit IV

Communication and Nurse patient relationship

Critical thinking and Nursing Judgment
Critical Thinking: Thinking and Learning,
Competencies, Attitudes for Critical Thinking, Levels of critical thinking in
Nursing
Nursing Process Overview: Application in Practice
Nursing Process format: INC, current format
Assessment
– Collection of Data: Types, Sources, Methods
– Formulating nursing judgment: Data Interpretation
Nursing diagnosis
– Identification of client problems
– Nursing diagnosis statement
– Difference between medical and nursing diagnosis
Planning
– Establishing Priorities
– Establishing Goals and Expected Outcomes,
– Selection of intervention: Protocols and standing orders
– Writing the nursing care plan
Implementation
– Implementing the plan of care
Evaluation
– Outcome of care
– Review and Modification
Documentation and Reporting

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Unit V

The Nursing Process

Critical thinking and Nursing Judgment
Critical Thinking: Thinking and Learning,
Competencies, Attitudes for Critical Thinking, Levels of critical thinking in
Nursing
Nursing Process Overview: Application in Practice
Nursing Process format: INC, current format
Assessment
– Collection of Data: Types, Sources, Methods
– Formulating nursing judgment: Data Interpretation
Nursing diagnosis
– Identification of client problems
– Nursing diagnosis statement
– Difference between medical and nursing diagnosis
Planning
– Establishing Priorities
– Establishing Goals and Expected Outcomes,
– Selection of intervention: Protocols and standing orders
– Writing the nursing care plan
Implementation
– Implementing the plan of care
Evaluation
– Outcome of care
– Review and Modification
Documentation and Reporting

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Unit VI

Documentation and Reporting

Documentation : Purpose of Recording and reporting
Communication within the Health Care Team,
Types of records; ward records medical/nursing records,
Common record-keeping forms, Computerized documentation
Guidelines for Reporting: Factual Basis, Accuracy, Completeness Currentness,
Organizaiton, confidentiality
Methods, confidentiality
Methods of Recording,
Reporting: Transfer reports, Incident reports
Minimizing legal Liability through effective record keeping

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Unit VII

Vital signs

Guidelines for taking vital signs:
Body temperature:
Physiology, Regulation, Factors affecting body temperature,
Assessment of body temperature: sites, equipments and technique, special
considerations
Temperature alterations: Hyperthermia, Heatstrocke, Hypothermia
Hot and cold applications
Pulse:
Physiology and Regulation, Characteristics of the pulse, Factors affecting
pulse
Assessment of pulse: sites, location, equipments and technique, special
considerations
Alterations in Pulse
Respiration:
Physiology and Regulations, mechanics of Breathing Characteristics of the
respiration, Factors affecting respiration
Assessment of respirations: technique, special considerations
Alterations in respiration
Blood pressure:
Physiology and Regulation, Characteristics of the blood pressure, Factors
affecting blood pressure
Assessment of blood pressure: sites, equipments and technique, special
considerations
Alterations in blood pressure
Recording of vital signs

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Unit VIII

Health Assessment

Purposes
Process Health assessment
Health history
Physical examination:
– Methods-Inspection, Palpation, Percussion, Auscultation, Olfaction
– Preparation for examination: patient and unit
– General assessment
– Assessment of each body system
– Recording of health assessment

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Unit IX

Machinery, Equipment and linen

Types: Disposables and reusable – Lines, rubber goods, glass ware, metal, plastics,
furniture, machinery
Introduction :
Indent
Maintenance
Inventory

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Unit X

Meeting needs of patien

Basic needs (Activities of daily living)
Providing safe and clean environment:
– Physical – environment: Temperature, Humidity, Noise, Ventilation,
light, Odour, pests control
– Reduction of Physical hazards: fire, accidents
– Safety devices’ Restraints, side rails, airways, trapez etc
– Role of nurse in providing safe and clean environment
Hygiene :
– Factors Influencing Hygienic Practice
– Hygienic Care: Care of the Skin-Bath and Pressure points, feet and
nail, Oral cavity, Hair Care, Eyes, Ears, and Nose
Assessment, Principles, Types, Equipments, procedure,
Special considerations
– Patient environment: Room Equipment and linen, making patient
beds
– Types of beds and bed making
Comfort:-
– Factors Influencing Comfort
– Comfort devices
Physiological needs:
Sleep and Rest:
– Physiology of sleep
– Factors affecting sleep
– Promoting Rest and sleep
– Sleep Disorders
Nutrition :-
– Importance
– Factors affecting nutritional needs
– Assessment of nutritional needs: Principles, equipments, procedure
and special considerations
Oral
Enteral: Naso/Orogastric, gastrostomy
Urinary Elimination
– Review of Physiology of Urinary Elimination, Composition and
characteristics of urine
– Factors Influencing urination
– Alteration in Urinary Elimination
– Types and Collection of urine specimen:
– Observation, urine testing
– Facilitating urine elimination: assessment, types, equipments,
procedures and special considerations
Providing urinal/bed pan
Condom drainage
Perineal care
Catheterizaion
Care of urinary drainage
Care of urinary diversions
Bladder irrigation
Bowel Elimination
– Review of Physiology of Bowel Elimination, Composition and
Characteristics of faeces
– Factors affecting Bowel elimination
– Alteration in Bowel elimination
– Types and collection of specimen of faeces: Observation
– Facilitating bowel elimination : assessment, equipments, procedure
and special considerations
Passing of Flatus tube
Enemas
Supporsitory
Sitz bath
Bowel wash
Care of Ostomies
Mobility and Immobility
– Principles of Body Mechanics
– Maintenance of normal body Alignment and mobility
– Factors affecting body Alignment and mobility
– Hazard associated with immobility
– Alteration in body Alignment and mobility
– Nursing interventions for impaired Body Alignment and Mobility:
assessment, types, devices used, method and special considerations,
rehabilitation aspects
Range of motion exercises
Maintaining body alignment: Positions
Moving
Lifting
Transferring
Walking
Restraints
Oxygenation
– Review of Cardiovascular and respiratory Physiology
– Factors Affecting Oxygenation
Alterations in oxygenation: assessment, types, equipment used,
procedure and special considerations
– Maintenance of patent airway
– Oxygen administration
– Suction
– Inhalations: dry and moist
– Chest physiotherapy and postural drainage
– Care of chest drainage
– Pulse oximetry
– CPR – Basic life support
– Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid
– Base Balances
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid, Base Balances
– Review of Physiological Regulation of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid
– Base Balances
– Factors Affecting Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid- Base Balances
– Alterations in Fluid, Electrolyte – Base Balances
– Nursing interventions in Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid
– Base Imbalances: assessment, types, equipment, procedure and
special considerations
Measuring fluid intake and output
Correcting fluid, Electrolyte Imbalance:
– Replacement of Fluids: Oral and Parenteral- Venipuncture,
regulating IV flow rates, changing IV solutions and tubing Changing
IV dressing,
– Administering Blood transfusion
– Restriction of fluids
Psychosocial Needs
Concepts of Cultural Diversity, stress and Adaptation, Self-concept,
Sexuality, Spiritual Health, coping with loss, death and grieving
Assessment of psychosocial needs
Nursing interventions for psychosocial needs
– Assist with coping an adaptation
Creating therapeutic environment
Recreational and diversional therapie

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Unit XI

Infection control in Clinical settings

Infection Control
Nature of infection
Chain of infection transmission
Defenses against infection: natural and acquired
Hospital acquired infection (Nosocomial infection)
Concept of asepsis: medical asepsis, and surgical asepsis
Isolation precaution (Barrier nursing):
Hand washing: simple, hand antisepsis and surgical antisepsis (scrub)
Isolation: source and protective
Personal protecting equipments: types, uses and technique of wearing
and removing
Decontamination of equipment and unit
Transportation of infected patients
Standard safety precautions (Universal Precautions)
Transmission based precautions
Biomedical waste management:
Importance
Types of hospital waste
Hazards associated with hospital waste
Decontamination hospital waste
Segregation and Transportation of disposal

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Unit XII

Administration of Medications

General Principles/Considerations
Purposes of Medication
Principles: 5 rights, Special Considerations, Prescriptions, Safety in
Administering Medications and Medication Errors
Drug forms
Routes of administration
Storage and maintenance of drugs and Nurses responsibility
Broad classification of drug
Therapeutic Effect, Side Effects, Toxic Effects, Idiosyncratic Reactions,
Allergic Reactions, Drug Tolerance, Drug Interactions,
Factors Influencing drug Actions,
Measurement: Metric System, Apothecary System, Household
Measurements, solutions.
Converting Measurements Units: Conversion within one system,
Conversion between systems, Dosage Calculation,
Terminologies and abbreviation used in prescriptions of medications
Oral Drugs Administration: Oral, Sublingual and Buccal: Equipment, procedure
Parenteral
General principles: decontamination and disposal of syringes and needles
Types of parenteral therapies
Types of syringes, needles, canula, and infusion sets
Protection from Needle stick Injuries: Giving Medications with a safety
syringes
Routes of parenteral therapies
– Intradermal: procedure, special considerations
– Subcutaneous purpose, site, equipment, procedure, special
considerations
– Intramuscular : purpose, site, equipment, procedure, special
Considerations
– Advanced techniques: Epidural, intrathecal, intraosseous,
intraperitonial, intraplural, intraarterial-Role of nurse
Topical Administration: Purposes, site, equipment, procedure, special
considerations for
Application to Skin
Application to mucous membrane
– Direct application of liquids-gargle and swabbing the throat
– Insertion of Drug into body cavity: Suppository/medicated packing
in rectum/vagina
– Instillations: Ear, Eye, Nasal, Bladder, and Rectal
– Irrigations: Eye, Ear, Bladder, Vaginal and Rectal
– Spraying: Nose and throat
Inhalation, Nasal, oral endotracheal/tracheal (steam oxygen and
medications) – purposes, type, equipment, procedure, special
considerations
– Recording and reporting of medications administered

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Unit XIII

Meeting needs of Preoperative patients

Definitions and concept of preoperative Nursing
Preoperative Phase
Preparation of patient for surgery
Intraoperative
Operation theatre Set up and environment
Role of nurse
Postoperative phase
Recovery unit
Post operative unit
Postoperative care
Wounds: types, Classification, wound Healing Process, Factors affecting Wound,
Complications of Wound Healing
Surgical asepsis
Care of the wound: types, equipments, procedure and special considerations
Dressings, Suture Care,
Care of Drainage
Application of Bandages, Binders, Splints & Slings
Heat and cold Therapy

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Unit XIV

Meeting special needs of the patient

Care of patients having alteration in –
Temperature (hyper and hypothermia); Types, Assessment, Management
Sensorium (Unconsciousness); Assessment, Management
Urinary Elimination (retention and incontinence); Assessment, management
Functioning of sensory organs; (Visual & hearing impairment)
Assessment of Self-Care ability
Communication methods and special considerations
Mobility (physically challenged, cast), assessment of Self-Care ability:
Communication methods and special considerations
Mental state (mentally challenged), assessment of Self-Care ability;
Communication methods and special considerations:
Respiration (distress); Types, Assessment, management
Comfort – (Pain)-Nature, Types, factors influencing Pain, Coping,
Assessment, Management;
Treatments related to gastrointestinal system: nasogastric suction, gastric
irrigation, gastric analysis

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Unit XV

Care of Terminally ill patient

Concepts of Loss, Grief, grieving Process
Signs of clinical death
Care of dying patient: special considerations
-Advance directives: euthanasia, will, dying declaration, organ donation etc
Medico legal issues
Care of dead body: equipment, procedure and care of unit
Autopsy
Embalming

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Unit XVI

Professional Nursing concepts and practice

Conceptual and theoretical models of nursing practice: Introduction to models
holistic model, health belief model, health promotion model etc
Introduction to theories in Nursing; Peplau’s, Henderson’s Orem’s, Neuman’s,
Roger’s and Roy’s
Linking theories with nursing process

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