Taxonomy and Systematics
Taxonomy: The branch of science dealing with the study of principles and procedures of classification is called taxonomy.
- The term taxonomy was coined by A.P. de Candolle.
- Linnaeus is considered as Father of Taxonomy.
- Santapau is considered as Father of Indian Taxonomy.
The fundamental elements of taxonomy are as follows :
- Characterisation and identification : It is the determination of the similarities of an organism with an already known organism, based upon specific characters.
- Nomenclature: It is the determination of correct name of an organism according to established universal rules.
- Classification: It is grouping of organisms into convenient categories on the basis of easily observable characters.
The classical taxonomy is based on observable morphological characters, however the modern taxonomy deals with several characters for the classification of organisms like (a) External and internal structure alongwith the structure of cell.
(b) Development process.
(c) Ecological information of organisms.
Systematics : The word “systematics” is derived from Latin word systema which means systematic arrangement of organisms. It was first used by Carolus Linnaeus. According to him, “systematics is the discipline of biology which deals with the kind and diversity of all organisms and the existing relationships amongst them.”
Generally, the terms such as classification, systematics and taxonomy are used interchangeably but some taxonomists like Simpson (1961) relate them with a separate field. He defined systematics as
“The study of diversity of organisms and all their comparative and evolutionary relationships based on comparative anatomy, comparative ecology, comparative physiology and comparative biochemistry.”
|1.|| Taxonomy includes following points (i) Characterisation,
|Systematics deals the study of diversity of living being. It includes
(i) Characterisation, (ii) Identification, (iii) Nomenclature, (iv) Classification (v) Affinity
|2.||Unit of taxonomy is species||
Unit of systematics is population
|3.||This term given by A.P. De Candolle||This term is given by Linnaeus|
|4.||, and Taxonomy given by Turril||New systematics given by Julian Huxley (1940)|