Human Anatomy & Physiology -I Free Notes Download – B. Pharm
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Scope: This subject is designed to impart fundamental knowledge on the structure and functions of the various systems of the human body. It also helps in understanding both homeostatic mechanisms. The subject provides the basic knowledge required to understand the various disciplines of pharmacy.
Objectives: Upon completion of this course the student should be able to
- Explain the gross morphology, structure and functions of various organs of the human
- Describe the various homeostatic mechanisms and their
- Identify the various tissues and organs of different systems of human
- Perform the various experiments related to special senses and nervous
Appreciate coordinated working pattern of different organs of each system
a. Introduction to human body
Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic anatomical terminology.
b. Cellular level of organization
Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication, intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent b) Paracrine c) Synaptic d) Endocrine
c. Tissue level of organization
Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.
Structure and functions of skin
Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system
Organization of skeletal muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction
Structural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its articulation.
Body fluids and blood
Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoeisis, formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticulo endothelial system.
Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation and functions of lymphatic system
Peripheral nervous system
Classification of peripheral nervous system: Structure and functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Origin and functions of spinal and cranial nerves.
Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.
Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heart beat, its regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart.